Friday, November 13, 2009

Female Circumcision

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting (FGC), female circumcision or female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), is any procedure involving the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs "whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons." The term is almost exclusively used to describe traditional or religious procedures on a minor, which requires the parents' consent because of the age of the girl.
When the procedure is performed on and with the consent of an adult it is generally called clitoridectomy, or it may be part of labiaplasty or vaginoplasty. It also generally does not refer to procedures used in gender reassignment surgery, and the genital modification of intersexuals.
FGC is practiced throughout the world, with the practice concentrated most heavily in Asia and Africa. Opposition is motivated by concerns regarding the consent (or lack thereof, in most cases) of the patient, and subsequently the safety and long-term consequences of the procedures. In the past several decades, there have been many concentrated efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO) to end the practice of FGC. The United Nations has also declared February 6 as "International Day Against Female Genital Mutilation".
Several dictionaries, including medical dictionaries, define the word circumcision as applicable to some procedures performed on females. Cook states that historically, the term female circumcision was used, but that "this procedure in whatever form it is practiced is not at all analogous to male circumcision and so the term 'female circumcision' gave way to the term 'female genital mutilation'" Shell-Duncan states that the term female circumcision is a euphemism for a variety of procedures for altering the female genitalia. Toubia argued, in 1995, that the term female circumcision "implies a fallacious analogy to nonmutilating male circumcision, in which the foreskin is cut off from the tip of the penis without damaging the organ itself." However, in the 1999 book Male and Female Circumcision, Toubia states that she agrees that "circumcision — that is, the genital mutilation of girls and boys — is wrong despite its widespread practice."
The term female genital mutilation gained growing support in the late 1970s. The word "mutilation" not only established clear linguistic distinction from male circumcision, but it also emphasized the gravity of the act. In 1990, this term was adopted at the third conference of the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) in Addis Ababa. In 1991, the World Health Organization (WHO), a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN), recommended that the UN adopt this terminology; subsequently, it has been widely used in UN documents. In this context, the term female circumcision was thus predominantly replaced by the term female genital mutilation.
Because the term female genital mutilation has been criticized for increasing the stigma associated with female genital surgery, some groups have proposed an alteration, substituting the word "cutting" for "mutilation." According to a joint WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA statement, the use of the word "mutilation" reinforces the idea that this practice is a violation of the human rights of girls and women, and thereby helps promote national and international advocacy towards its abandonment. They state that, at the community level, however, the term can be problematic; and that local languages generally use the less judgmental "cutting" to describe the practice. They also state that parents resent the suggestion that they are "mutilating" their daughters. In 1999, the UN Special Rapporteur on Traditional Practices called for tact and patience regarding activities in this area and drew attention to the risk of "demonizing" certain cultures, religions, and communities. As a result, the term "cutting" has increasingly come to be used to avoid alienating communities.
In 1996, the Uganda-based initiative REACH (Reproductive, Educative, And Community Health) began using the term "FGC", observing that "FGM" may "imply excessive judgment by outsiders as well as insensitivity toward individuals who have undergone some form of genital excision." The UN uses "FGM" in official documents, while some of its agencies, such as the UN Population Fund, use both the terms "FGM" and "FGC”.

FGC consists of several distinct procedures. Their severity is often viewed as dependent on how much genital tissue is cut away. The WHO—which uses the term Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)—divides the procedure into four major types[23] (see Diagram 1), although there is some debate as to whether all common forms of FGM fit into these four categories, as well as issues with the reliability of reported data.


Cohibitation is a living arrangement in which an unmarried couple live together in a long-term relationship that resembles a marriage.
Couples cohabit rather than marrying for a variety of reasons. They may want to test their compatibility before they commit to a legal union. They may want to maintain their single status for financial reasons. In some cases, such as those involving gay or lesbian couples, or individuals already married to another person, the law does not allow them to marry. In others, the partners may feel that marriage is unnecessary. Whatever the reasons, between 1970 and 1990, the number of couples living together outside of marriage quadrupled, from 523,000 to nearly 3 million. These couples face some of the same legal issues as married people, as well as some their married friends never need to consider.


In most places, it is legal for unmarried people to live together, although some zoning laws prohibit more than three unrelated people from inhabiting a house or apartment. A few states still prohibit fornication, or sexual relations between an unmarried man and woman, but such laws are no longer enforced. Some states also prohibit sodomy, which includes sexual relations between people of the same sex. Although anti-sodomy laws are rarely enforced against consenting adults acting in the privacy of their homes, a 1986 Supreme Court case proved that such laws can be. In Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186, 106 S. Ct. 2841, 92 L. Ed. 2d 140, the Court held that private, consensual homosexual acts are not protected by the right to privacy and that laws prohibiting such conduct are constitutional.

The law traditionally has been biased in favor of marriage. Public policy supports marriage as necessary to the stability of the family, the basic societal unit. To preserve and encourage marriage, the law reserves many rights and privileges to married persons. Cohabitation carries none of those rights and privileges. It has been said that cohabitation has all the headaches of marriage without any of the benefits. Cohabiting couples have little guidance as to their legal rights in such areas as property ownership, responsibility for debts, custody, access to health care and other benefits, and survivorship.

Monday, October 12, 2009


On this blog i put my curriculum vitae. For see information please download link below :


Click this link for download power point based on the paper:


       During the television licensing freeze of 1948–1952, the demand for television increased. Since new television licenses were not being issued, the only way the demand was met was by Community Antenna Television. Ed Parsons is known for building the first system in the U.S. that used coaxial cable, amplifiers, and a community antenna to deliver television signals to an area that otherwise would not have been able to receive broadcast television signals.In 1948 he rigged up a crafty community antenna and married it with long cables to bring television to his home in remote Astoria, Ore. Parsons simply wanted to let his wife watch the new Seattle TV station, which had gone on the air a few months earlier. At the time, no one could have imagined he was inventing a multibillion-dollar industry that would become a king of sneaky fees.
       In fact, Parson, his wife, and millions of other Americans, did not live close enough to broadcast stations to receive a signal. In the spring of 1948, Parsons learned that radio station KRSC in Seattle which 125 miles away was going to launch a television station that fall. He found that with a large antenna he could receive KRSC's signal on the roof of the Astoria Hotel and from there he ran coaxial cable across the street to his apartment.
When the station (now KING-TV) went on the air in November 1948, Parsons was the only one in town able to see television. Soon others in town wanted the same service, and Parsons helped them hook up to the system. He charged them a fee for his work and materials but never instituted a monthly service charge. In May 1968, Parsons was acknowledged as the father of community antenna television. According to MSNBC's Bob Sullivan, however, Parsons charged a $125 one-time set-up fee and a $3 a month service fee.
In 1950, Robert Tarlton developed the first commercial cable television system in the United States. Mr. Tarlton organized a group of fellow television set retailers in Lansford, Pennsylvania, to offer television signals from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania broadcast stations to homes in Lansford for a fee. The system was featured in stories in the New York Times, Newsweek and The Wall Street Journal. The publicity of this successful early system set off a wave of cable system construction throughout the United States.
       Tarlton used equipment manufactured by a new company, Jerrold Electronics. After seeing the success of the Tarlton system in 1950, Jerrold President Milton Shapp reorganized his company to build equipment for the now-growing cable industry. In 1952, Tarlton went to work for Jerrold, helping to construct most of the major systems built by that company in the 1950s, including the landmark system in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. Tarlton was also responsible for training many of the major operators of cable systems in the 1950s. In 2003, Mr. Tarlton was inducted in the Cable Television Hall of Fame for his work building the first widely publicized cable television company in America. 

Cable Today and Tomorrow

It should come as no surprise that the rise of cable led other innovators and entrepreneurs to get on the multichannel bandwagon. Leading the way were satellite, multichannel, multipoint distribution service (MMDS) and a huge consumer favorite: the VCR.
Reflecting on the developmets, we will see that the cable industry will continue to provide standard analog programming to its subscribers while offering a wide variety of digital and other video services.


Pada mata kuliah ini mahasiswa diajarkan bagaimana komunikasi di Indonesia sebenarnya dengan memberikan tugas membahas komunikasi budaya kita dapat mengetahui bagaimana budaya itu berkomunikasi dan apa saja tradisi dari budaya itu. Dalam tugas ini saya mengangkat budaya SUNDA sebagai topik utamanya.

Sunda dikenal dengan budaya yang sangat menjujung tinggi sopan santun. Pada umumnya karakter masyarakat sunda, ramah tamah , murah senyum lemah lembut dan sangat menghormati orang tua. Itulah cermin budaya dan kultur masyarakat sunda. Di dalam bahasa Sunda diajarkan bagaimana menggunakan bahasa halus untuk orang tua. Bahasa Sunda dituturkan oleh sekitar 27 juta orang dan merupakan bahasa dengan penutur terbanyak kedua di Indonesia setelah Bahasa Jawa.

Kebudayaan sunda merupakan salah satu kebudayaan yang menjadi sumber kekayaan bagi bangsa Indonesia. Hamper semua orang sunda menganut agama islam. Hanya sebagian kecil yang tidak beragama islam, contohnya orang baduy yang berada di banten. Kirap helaran merupakan suatu jenis kesenian tradisional atau seni pertunjukan rakyat yang dilakukan dengan arak –arakan dalam bentuk helaran. Suku    sunda dikenal memiliki aneka budaya kesenian. Tari jaipong merupakan salah satu tarian tradisinal dari suku sunda. Tari jaipong sebetulnya merupakan tarian yang sudah modern karena merupakan modifikasi atau pengembangan dari tradisional khas sunda yaitu Ketuk Tilu. Tari jaipong ini dibawakan dengan iringan music khas sunda juga yaitu degung. Selain seni tari suku sunda terkenal dengan seni suaranya. Penyanyi yang membawakan lagu disebut sinden. Tidak semua sinden bisa membawakan lagu khas sunda. Contoh lagu daerah sunda, bubu bulan, es lilin, tokecang dan warung pojok. 

                                                       tari jaipong dari sunda

baju adat sunda